Thursday, March 11, 2010

PULSES PRODUCTION STRATEGIES IN TAMIL NADU


CONTENTS
Page No.
Perspective of increasing Pulse Productivity in Tamil Nadu 1
Prof.Dr.S.Kannaiyan
Use of Biofertilizers for increasing Pulse Production 8
Prof.Dr.S.Kannaiyan, K.Govindarajan, K.Kumar &
K.Chendrayan
Pulses Strategy in Tamil Nadu 24
Dr.M.Subramanian
Problems and Perspectives of cultivation of Pulses and prospects 33
of summer irrigated Pulses in Tamil Nadu
Dr.C.Surendran & A.R.Muthiah
Recent Management Techniques for Rice fallow Pulses 43
Dr.S.Ramanathan
Varietal Scenario of Pulses in Tamil Nadu 53 Dr.K.Mohanasundaram
Dryland Techniques for Pulses Productivity 62
Dr.T.M.Thiyagarajan & Dr.T.N.Balasubramanian
Plant Protection Strategies in Pulses 73
Dr.Sabitha Doraisamy, Dr.K.Gunasekaran & Dr.T.Ganapathi
Management of Pod borer complex in Redgram 83
Dr.K.Gunasekaran
Recent Trends in Seed production in Pulses 91
Dr.V.Krishnasamy, Dr.V.Palanisamy & Dr.P.Srimathi
Rhizobium and Phosphobacteria : An avenue for increasing 103
Productivity of Pulses
Dr.S.Gunasekaran & Dr.D.Balachandran
Tagging Gene(s) for Mung bean Yellow Mosaic Resistance 123
In Mung bean – A Collaborative Approach with AVRDC
Dr.Manickam
Role of Pulses in Human Diets 129
Dr.A.Suseela Thirumaran & Dr.S.Kanchana
Status of Pulse milling Techniques 144
Dr.V.V.Sreenarayanan and Dr.C.T.Devadoss
Transfer of Technology for increasing pulses production 154
Dr.S.Uthamasamy and Dr.S.Palaniswamy
Proceedings and Recommendations 161
PERSPECTIVES OF INCREASING PULSE
PRODUCTIVITY IN TAMIL NADU
Prof.Dr.S.Kannaiyan*
Pulses are the major sources of dietary protein in the vegetarian diet in our country. Besides being a rich source of protein, they maintain soil fertility through biological nitrogen fixation in soil and thus play a vital role in furthering sustainable agriculture (Kannaiyan, 1999). At present globally 60 million tonnes of pulses are produced annually from 70 million hectares. The contribution of developing countries like India, China, Brazil, Turkey and Mexico accounts for nearly two third production India is the largest producer with 33 per cent of global area contributing 22 per cent of the world’s production. Normally the area under pulses in the country is around 24.38 million hectares with a production of 14.52 million tonnes. The average productivity of the country is about 600 Kg/ha against the average global productivity of 857 Kg/ha.
In Tamil Nadu, the total area under pulses is around 9.5 lakh ha with a production of 4.08 lakh tons. The average productivity of pulses in the state is around 430 Kg/ha which is far below the average productivity of the country as well as that of the global productivity. The area under blackgram in the state is around 4.46 lakh ha in the year 1999 with a production of 2.06 lakh tons which accounts for an average productivity of 461 Kg/ha (Dixit et al, 2000). The increase in area and production is attributed to the development of high yielding and MYMV resistant varieties suitable for cultivation in rabi season in rice fallows. The average of blackgram in the state is just above the national average productivity of 448 Kg/ha, however, it is lesser than that recorded in states like Bihar (694 Kg/ha), Maharastra (631 Kg/ha), Gujarat (601 Kg/ha) and Andhra Pradesh (555 Kg/ha).
In the case of greengram the area is around 1.83 lakh ha in the year 1999 with a production of 0.696 lakh tons which works out to an average productivity of 380 Kg/ha. It is also just above the national average productivity of 363 Kg/ha. However, this average is lesser than that recorded in states like Maharastra (575 Kg/ha), Punjab (605 Kg/ha), Bihar (561 Kg//ha), Andhra Pradesh (447 Kg/ha), Uttar Pradesh (428 Kg/ha) and West Bengal (390 Kg/ha).
* Vice-Chancellor, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore
Pigeonpea is yet another important source of vegetable protein, used either as dhal or as green vegetable. Dry grains of pigeonpea have 20-22 per cent protein. Green pigeonpea seeds contain 10 times more fat, 5 times more vitamin A and 3 times more vitamin C than ordinary peas, besides they contain numerous minerals. Pigeonpea stalks are also a major source of firewood and live stock feed. This pulse crop is grown mostly as an intercrop between cereals crops and plays a unique role in enriching the soil, by adding 40 Kg Nitrogen per hectare over a given season. The deep root system of the crop helps to recycle plant nutrients from deeper layers, and the acid secretions from its roots increase the availability of phosphorus in the soil. Pigeonpea also improves the physical structure of soil by enhancing water infiltration for subsequent crops, and plays a crucial role in sustaining agriculture in rainfed, semi arid farming systems (Arunachalam et al., 1995).
Redgram (Pigeonpea), occupies an area of around 3.47 million hectares in India with a production of 2.77 million tonnes which accounts for a productivity of 799 Kg/ha. In Tamil Nadu the area under redgram is about 1.40 lakh hectares with a production of 1.20 lakh tons and the productivity is 864 Kg/ha, which is higher than the average national productivity , but lower then the productivity level of Uttar Pradesh (1134 Kg/ha), Haryana (1145 Kg/ha), Bihar (999 Kg/ha), Gujarat (952 Kg/ha) and Punjab (880 Kg/ha). But the productivity is lower in states like Andhra Pradesh (383 Kg/ha), Karnataka (499 Kg/ha), Madhya Pradesh (832 Kg/ha), Maharastra (681 Kg/ha), Orissa (361 Kg/ha) and Rajasthan (380 Kg/ha) compared to Tamil Nadu.
Traditional varieties of pigeonpea need about 6 to 9 months to mature, while the improved varieties developed can be harvested in 3-4 months. Both long duration (180 days) and medium duration (130-140 days) genotypes are grown in Tamil Nadu under various cropping systems. Because of shorter growing period and low moisture in soil as well as high atmospheric temperature, the productivity is low. These abiotic stresses are further aggravated by biotic stresses like pod borers, wilt and sterility mosaic (Singh and Bhan, 1998). Management of these stresses can contribute to an yield recovery of 300-350 Kg/ha. Further extension of area is possible in rabi reason as a sole or inter crop with cereals and legumes. Under these situations the short duration pigeonpea like APK 1 (Aruppukottai 1) and Vamban 1 can be suitably fitted in.
APK 1 redgram matures in 95-105 days and capable of giving an average yield of 900 and 1250 Kg/ha under rainfed and irrigated conditions respectively. It is resistant to SMD. It is highly suited as a pure crop in southern districts for October-November sowings as a rainfed crop in uplands. Vamban 1 redgram is also maturing in 95-100 days and capable giving an
average yield of 850 and 1200 Kg/ha under rainfed and irrigated conditions respectively. This variety is highly suitable for intercropping in groundnut. Both APK 1 and Vamban 1 regrams because of their shorter duration, they can be raised under irrigated situations as a sole crop in summer. During kharif, under rainfed conditions the age old variety of SA 1 is to be replaced by Vamban 2. It is resistant to sterility mosaic disease and capable giving an average yield 1050 Kg per ha which is 20 per cent higher yield than SA 1.
The hybrid redgram COPH 2 which matures in 120-130 days, gives an average yield of 1050 kg/ha. It is photoinsensitive and can be grown in all the three seasons viz., Kharif, Rabi and Summer. It is suitable as an irrigated pure crop in districts like Erode, Coimbatore, Salem and Dharmapuri and possesses the potential to yield 1350 kg/ha under irrigated conditions.
Long duration and medium duration pigeonpeas have been cultivated as mixed and intercrops. However, of late, shift towards monocropping with some inputs in certain agroecological nitches has taken place. Short duration pigeonpea (APK 1 and Vamban 1) varieties are to be grown as a pure irrigated crop during summer in southern districts as well as in Cauvery delta zone which will result in horizontal growth of 25000 ha and an additional production of 0.37 lakh tons can be expected annually from this new nitch. Farmers are reluctant to grow pigeonpea because of pod borers damage (Ali, 1998) which can be managed with integrated pest management practices as given below.
�� Use of pod borer tolerant varieties
�� Use of Pheromone traps and bird perches
�� Use of NPV (500 larval equivalent per hectare)
�� Spraying Neem seed kernel extract 5%
�� Spraying Endosulfan 35 EC, 1.25 lit per hectare from the third instar of its larval stage.
�� NSKE 5%, Neem oil 2% and Phasalone 0.07% sprays are effective
�� Mechanical removal of late stage larvae is effective
�� IPM plot has increased the yield by 177 per cent.
Cultivation of redgram on bunds in low land areas is becoming popular. Cultivation of BSR 1 redgram in borders of turmeric fields in Erode district will result in additional production. Each plant can yield 1 to 1.5 Kg of green pods per plant and first harvest can be taken up in 150 days. Green pigeonpea contains 10 times more fat, 5 times more vitamin A and 3 times more vitamin C than ordinary pea and also contain numerous minerals.
Pulses are vital for sustainability of our crop production systems, soil health and above all for our food security. Greengram is the early maturing crop and fits well with almost all cropping systems. Although, blackgram is
slightly late maturing crop compared to greengram, its utility in South Indian diet makes it so popular and that these two crops are cultivated in more than six million hectares i.e. more than one fourth of the total area under pulses in this country. Because of their short duration, these crops fit well under different cropping systems and thus have enormous potential for the future which needs to be capitalized. It is estimated that a horizontal expansion of around 7-8 million hectares area under these crops could be possible in the country, under new nitches of cultivation, which can add 4-5 million tons more to the total pulse production. In order to achieve this, the critical gaps in production technology of these crops must be suitably addressed. In coastal and semi arid areas of Tamil Nadu, there is a possible expansion of area under blackgram and greengram during rabi to an extent of nearly five lakh hectares especially under rice fallow conditions.
Development of location specific agrotechniques for blackgram and greengram in rice fallows of Tamil Nadu is the most important for the above horizontal expansion in area.
Constraints of rice fallow cultivation and remedies
�� Adequate population coultn’t be maintained in blackgram and greengram under rice fallow conditions due to improper leveling
�� Uncertainity in the time of sowing of blackgram and greengram. If the sowing is delayed beyond February 15th, there is a drastic reduction in productivity therefore sowing should be done between January 15th and February 15th.
�� Terminal moisture stress under rice fallow conditions results in poor yield.
Vamban 3 blackgram maturing in 70 days, is capable of yielding an average of 825 and 950 Kg/ha under rainfed and irrigated conditions respectively. It is resistant to MYMV and can be grown during kharif, rabi and summer in all districts of Tamil Nadu except Nilgiris and Kanyakumari. K1 blackgram maturing in 70-75 days with an average yield of 700 Kg/ha is best suited for intercropping with cotton in Southern Districts of Tamil Nadu. APK1 blackgram is also suited for intercropping in cotton. About, 50,000 hectares of tapioca raised in Salem and Kallakurichi areas, may be utilized for intercropping short duration blackgram and greengram. KM 2, K 851 and CO 6 greengram and TMV 1, Vamban 2 and Vamban 3 blackgram are very suitable for this situation. CO 6 greengram maturing in 65 days, is resistant to MYMV and gives an average yield of 850 and 1300 Kg/ha under rainfed and irrigated
conditions respectively. It is suitable for sowing in Kharif , rabi and summer seasons in all districts of Tamil Nadu except in districts like Nilgiris and Kanyakumari.
Pulses Management Technologies
• Pulses seeds treated with specific strains of Rhizobium increases (favourable CN ratio is 10:1) the yield through for better nodulation and maintenance of organic matter in the soil (Saxena and Tilak, 1999).
• All pulses can not be inoculated by a single rhizobial strain. Even in that case particular species of Rhizobium may not possess the efficiency for a long time. This necessitates the introduction of newer strains to maintain the nitrogen efficiency and thereby increasing the productivity. At TNAU newer strains were introduced for crop specific
Rhizobium Percentage of increase Host crop
in yield
COG 15 30 Green gram
COC 10 23 Black gram
CC 1 12-60 Red gram
CO Be 13 25-30 Bengal gram
COC 10 35 Cowpea
Combined inoculation
Combined inoculation of Rhizobium with phosphobacteria (Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas striata) for red gram, black gram, green gram and bengalgram increased has grain yield for maximum grain yield was recorded by the combination of rhizobial strain with phosphobacteria with full dose of N & P in red gram (986 kg/ha). It increased 34.70 per cent higher yield than the uninoculated control. Dual inoculation with half dose of fertilizer gave an yield of 880 kg/ha which is 20.22 per cent higher than control.
A bright future for vegetable soybean
Vegetable soybean can be harvested while the pod is still green with the seed filling 80-90% of the pod. The green beans can be shelled, cooked separately or with meat and other vegetables. They make good snack as well. The green mochai is to be replaced by the vegetable soybean. The beans are sweeter compared to grain soybean. The horticultural characterstics include pod and seed colour, appearance, flavour, texture, taste, size of pod and seed and the number of seeds per pod. At present in Coimbatore, six vegetable soybean types of AVRDC viz., AGS 744, AGS 745, AGS 777, AGS 746, AGS
775 and AGS 797 are tried to assess their yielding ability. The highest yield of 13.8 t/ha in 88 days was obtained in Tainan district of Taiwan.
Popularisation of less known pulses to increase the production
High yielding varieties of rice bean, lima bean, sword bean, garden lablab (avarai) and field lab lab (mochai) are to be popularised , to get more production of pulses in the state.
Cold season pulses
Among the cold season pulses, horsegram is the most important crop occupies about 1.23 lakh ha of marginal lands with a production of 0.53 lakh tons. The productivity is about 431 kg/ha. In certain years for eg. in the year 1989-90, the productivity was very low in this crop i.e. 319 kg/ha, therefore improved varieties like CO 1, Paiyur 1 and Paiyur 2 are to be grown to get higher productivity. Bengalgram is grown only in an area of about 0.09 lakh hectares and the productivity of this crop is high i.e. about 675 to 700 Kg/ha. Improved root rot resistant CO 3 and wilt resistant CO 4 bengalgram are to be grown to get higher productivity.
References
Ali, M.1998. Research, Development and Management for production of pulses. In : IPM system in Agriculture. Vol.4. Pulses (eds. R.K.Upadhyay, K.G. Mukerji and R.L.Rajak) Aditya Books Private Limited, New Delhi. pp 1-40.
Arunachalam,L., S.Purushothaman, SP.Palaniappan and M.Mark Devasahayam, 1995. Relative contribution of non-monetary / low cost inputs in redgram production. Madras Agric. J. 82(3) : 179-181.
Dixit, G.P., Tripathi, D.P., Suresh Chandra, Tewari, T.N. and J.L.Tickoo (2000) MULL & RP Crops, varieties developed during last fifty years. AICRP on MULL & RP, IIPR, Kanpur. pp 16.
Gurdip Singh and Livinder Khar Bhavan. 1998. Diseases of Mungbean and Urdbean and their management. In : IPM system in Agriculture vol.4. Pulses (eds. R.K.Upadhyay, K.G.Mukerji and R.L.Rajak) Aditya Books Private Limited, New Delhi. pp 311-371.
Kannaiyan, S. 1999. Bioresources Technology for Sustainable Agriculture, Associated Publishing Company, New Delhi. p.422.
Saxena, A.K. and K.V.B.R. Tilak. 1999. Potentials and prospects of Rhizobium biofertilizer. In : Agromicrobes. (eds. M.N.Jha, S.Sriram, G.S.Venkataraman and S.G.Sharma) pp 51-78. Todays and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers, New Delhi.
USE OF BIOFERTILZERS FOR INCREASING PULSE PRODUCTION
S. Kannaiyan1, K. Govindarajan2, K. Kumar3 and K. Chendrayan4
Pulse crops have been an important component of agriculture since ancient times. These leguminous plants on symbiotic association with soil bacterium, the Rhizobium forms nitrogen fixing root nodules which are agronomically significant as they provide an alternative to the use of energy expensive nitrogenous chemical fertilizer. Despite the large and increasing use of nitrogenous fertilizers in agriculture, estimates suggest that biological nitrogen fixation contributes at least four times more nitrogen to the soil throughout the world. On a global basis these symbiotic association between legume and Rhizobium may reduce about 70 million tons of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia per annum which amounts to about 40 % of all biologically fixed nitrogen per year (Burns and Hardy, 1975). The legumes improve soil fertility through their nitrogen fixing ability Nitrogen fixing values estimated for various legumes are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Estimates of nitrogen fixed by legumes (Peoples et al. 1995)
Crop
Nitrogen fixed Kg /ha
Blackgram
119-140
Chickpea
23-97
Cluster bean
378-196
Cowpea
9-125
Greengram
50-66
Pigeonpea
4-200
Soybean
49-450
Peas
46
1. Vice-Chancellor, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore
2-4. Department of Agricultural Microbiology, TNAU, Coimbatore
Classification of rhizobia
The classification of root nodulating rhizobia has been modified since 1984 and is likely to change further with more detailed studies on large number of Rhizobium strains from a wide variety of leguminous plants. At present only about 8-9% of the 14,000 or so known species of leguminous plants have been examined for nodulation, and less than 0.5% have been studied relative to their symbiotic relationship with nodule bacteria. A new system of classification was proposed by Jordan (1984) in Bergy's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology and in given is Table 2.
Table 2. Classification of root nodule bacteria (Jordan, 1984)
Genus
Species
Biovars
Host legumes
Rhizobium
R. leguminosarum
viceae
Vicia
R.leguminosarum
trifolii
Trifolium
R.leguminosarum
phaseoli
Phaseolus
R. meliloti
-
Medicago
R. loti
-
Lotus
R. fredii
-
Glycine
Bradyrhizobium
B. japonicum
-
Glycine
Bradyrhizobium sp.
-
Gicer,cajanus, vigna
Selection of rhizobial strains for inoculant production
A large scale screening should be carried out to identify ideal inoculant strains for different legume crops. The criterion for selections may vary for particular soil types like acidic, sodic, sodic-saline, saline, nitrate-, rich or heavy metal contaminated. Based on suggestion by Brockwell et al. (1982), and Howieson and Ewing (1986), Keyser et al. (1992) the following characters are considered as desirable for a strains to be fit for use in commercial inoculants.
a) Ability to form nodules and fix N2 on the target pulse crop
b) Ability to compete in nodule formation with populations of native rhizobia present in the soil
c) Ability to fix N2 across a range of environmental conditions
d) Ability to form nodules and fix N in the presence of soil nitrate
e) Ability to grow well in artificial media, in inoculant carrier and in the soil
f) Ability to persist in soil, particularly for annually regenerating legumes
g) Ability to migrate from the initial site of inoculation
h) Ability to colonize the soil in the absence of a legume host
i) Ability to tolerate environmental stresses.
j) Ability to fix N2 with a wide range of host genotypes
k) Genetic stability
l) Compatibility with agrochemical
Based on the above criteria, several rhizobial strains were screened for various pulse crops through field experiment. Consequently, the following strains of rhizobia are being employed for inoculant production at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University.
Crop
Rhizobium strains recommended
Redgram
CC-1
Greengran
CRM-14
Blackgram
CRU-15
Bengalgram
COBe-13
Soybean
COS-1
Inoculant Production
Rhizobia are not very particular in their nutritional requirements. Yeast extract mannitol (YEM) medium is employed for culturing of rhizobia. Large scale multiplication of rhizobia can be carried out using rotary shaker or fermentor. In shake flask culture, liquid medium in flasks is agitated by circular motion of rotary shaker. Fermentors are used for industrial scale production of biofertilizers. Culture vessels ranging from 5 to 1000 lit can be used depending upon the requirement. The amount of inoculum culture to be added into the fermentor vessel depends on the size of the fermentor, but the ratio between the inoculum and the medium in the vessel should be maintained at 1:2 (5% inoculum rate). The broth is continuously aerated by forcing sterile air. Various fermentation requirements like aeration, agitation and fermentation time vary from strain to strain. When the number of rhizobia in the liquid medium has attained the required standard (108 -109 cells /ml), the broth should be added to the carrier for preparation of carrier based inoculant.
The term 'carrier' is generally used for a medium, which carries the live microorganisms. The carrier materials should be in powder form and capable of passing through 150-212 micron (72-100 mesh) IS sieve. A good carrier should
a) have high water holding capacity
b) be non-toxic to rhizobia
c) be easy to sterilize by autoclaving
d) readily and inexpensively available
e) provide good adhesion to seed
f) have buffering capacity
g) have cation and / or amino exchange capacity
Most peat's meet these criteria and remain the favoured carrier material for inoculants. In India, high quality peat is not available although peat-like material of medium quality, designated as peat soil, is located in Nilgiris However, search for alternative carrier materials continues. Based on the research findings, lignite which is found better and is being employed as carrier material instead of peat at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. In manufacturing inoculants, a period of 'curing' (maturation) after the addition of broth culture to carrier improves the quality of the product (Burton, 1976). After curing, the inoculant is packed in polyethylene bags (high density; 0.075- 0.090 mm). Inoculants must be incubated for a week in a room with an ambient temperature of 25 - 30° C. During this period the bacterium multiplies and reaches to a required standard. The packets may then be stored in a cold room (4°-15° C) till its use.
Quality control of inoculants
The quality of rhizobial incoulants is of great importance in ensuring field performance of as well as for the commercial prospects of inoculant industry. Basically quality means the presence of the right type of microorganism in active form and desired members. Evaluation of inoculant quality by entertain of viable rhizobial is an accurate index of inoculating potential (Hiltbold et al. 1980). According to Bureau of Indian standards, the Indian standard speritications for Rhizobium inoculants is that, it should contain 108 cells / g of carrier material at the time of manufacture and 107 cells / g within 15 days before expiry date.
Rhizobium inoculation
Root-nodule forming bacteria although present in most of the soils, vary in number and in their effectiveness in nodulation and nitrogen fixation. Hence, wherever necessary, seed inoculation of legumes with effective strains of the required rhizobia is practiced to ensure their adequate population in the root zone. This helps to improve nodulation, nitrogen fixation, crop growth and yield of leguminous crops which depends for their growth, not only on nitrogen fixation biologically in their root nodules, but are known to benefit the subsequent crops (Thompson, 1980). This is one of the scientific basis of crop rotation. In fields lacking appropriate rhizobia pulse crops can be raised
successfully with rhizobial inoculation without resorting to large application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers.
The survey conducted on nodulation by pulse crops showed that in about half the area, nodulation was poor for one reason or the other, even though the pulse crops had been grown in that area for a long time. Inoculating pulse crops in these areas with suitable rhizobia could improve their nodulation / N2 - fixing capacities, resulting in improved yield. The use of rhizobia as biofertilizer to enhance the yield of pulse crops has been well documented by many researchers. Different diagnostic measures to decide about inoculation have been suggested. Inoculation should be carried out if,
a) Population density of species - specific rhizobia is low
b) The same or symbiotically related legume is not grown in the area in the immediate past history
c) Waste - lands have to be reclaimed
d) Legume follows a non-leguminous crops in a rotation
e) Soil is poor in mineral N (nitrate)
f) Soils are acidic, alkaline and saline
Method of inoculation
The major goal of legume inoculation is to introduce efficient and competitive strains in large numbers which can survive and establish in the legume rhizosphere and colonize the roots promptly. Application of inoculant to the seed surface prior to sowing is the traditional means of inoculation, although viability of rhizobia is subject to the hazards of drying (Salena et al. 1982); fertilizer count (Kremer et al., 1982); seed coat toxicity (Materon and Weaver, 1983); incompatible pesticide and mineral additives (Gault and Brockwell, 1980; Skipper et al., 1980) and soil factors (Kremer and Peterson, 1983; Mahler and Wollum, 1982). There are mumerous adhesives like jugglery or sugar, gum arabic, methyl cellose etc, for attaching inoculant to the seed (Brockwell, 1962; Elgba and Rennie, 1984; Hoben et al., 1991). Tenacity is the important characteristic of adhesives to ensure that inoculant is not lost from the seed during handling and passage through sowing machinery. The adhesive must be green from any preservative that might diminish the viability of rhizobia. Rice gruel has been found cheap and best adhesive material and is being recommended by Tamil Nadu Agricultural University.
The method of seed inoculation induces preparation of inoculant scurry by adding 200 g of carrier based inoculant in 200 ml of rice gruel. This inoculant slurry is added on the seeds and the seeds are thoroughly mixed so as to have a uniform coating. A count of 1000 viable cells per seed is to be
attained at the time of treating the seed and quantity of culture used is accordingly addicted (Saxena and Tilak, 1999). The seeds are spread uniformly for drying on a gunny bag or cement floor in shade and not under direct sunlight. When seeds are treated with fungicides, seed treatment with bacterial inoculant is to done last.
Way to improve Rhizobium - legume symbiosis
Host related aspects
Presence of a large genotypic variability for nitrogen fixing traits like nodule numbers, nodule mass and acetylene reduction activity per plant has been known. Experiments conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and other places indicate that the above nitrogen fixing traits varied with the host genotypes in various pulse crops and are given in table 4,5 and 6.
Table 3. Interaction between cultivars of redgram and Rhizobium strains
and its effect on nodule numbers
Strains
Nodule number / plant
CO.5
ICPL 87
Vamban
Mean
UASB 722
10.1
9.5
10.0
9.87
PT 300
13.0
13.9
12.6
13.17
JARS 70
15.2
13.3
14.3
14.33
20 kg N/ ha
7.2
6.3
6.5
6.67
Uninoculated control
6.1
5.9
5.6
5.87
Mean
10.32
9.82
9.80
Table 4. Interaction between cultivars of redgram and Rhizobium strains
and its effect on nodule weight
Strains
Nodule dry weight (mg / plant)
CO.5
ICPL 87
Vamban
Mean
UASB 722
17.0
16.2
14.0
15.73
PT 300
18.1
17.0
16.3
17.13
JARS 60
19.5
18.6
18.0
18.70
20 kg N/ ha
10.0
8.6
9.1
9.25
Uninoculated control
8.2
7.6
7.5
7.77
Mean
14.5
14.4
11.29
Table 5. Interaction between cultivars of greengram and Rhizobium and
its effect on nodule number
Strains
Nodule (number/ plant)
PS 16
CO.5
Mean
M11 85
10.82
12.52
11.67
M6 84
15.40
16.10
15.75
GR 4
16.20
17.42
16.71
M6 65
12.80
13.25
13.03
20 kg N/ ha
7.25
8.46
7.86
Uninoculated control
5.80
6.10
5.95
Mean
11.38
12.31
Table 6. Interaction between cultivars of green gram and Rhizobium
strains and its effect on nodules dry weight
Strains
Nodule dry weight (mg / plant)
PS 16
CO.5
Mean
M11 85
19.10
21.50
20.30
M6 84
22.00
19.20
20.60
GR 4
22.65
24.10
23.78
M6 65
23.70
18.40
21.05
20 kg N/ ha
16.60
13.10
14.85
Uninoculated control
10.40
11.20
14.85
Mean
19.80
17.93
10.83
Likewise, observation on the variability in nodulation between varieties was also made in chickpea (Rupeal, 1994). It was also observed that not only consistent low-and high nodulating plants were present within chickpea cultivars, even non-nodulating plants occurred in normal cultivars. Arunachalam et al (1984) found that nodule weight has good predictive value for plant growth and yield related traits. These studies suggest a great scope for enhancing symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes through host plant selection. Another approach to improve symbiontic nitrogen fixation in pulse crop is breeding for nitrate tolerance, as the nitrate is an inhibitor of nodulation process in the host plant (Carroll et al., 1985).
Soil - related aspects
a) Physico -chemical parameters
Soil temperature, moisture and reaction are the important physico-chemical parameters that influence the symbiotic nitrogen fixation in pulse crops. Plant root exudation, growth and survival of rhizobia, root hair formation and infection process in plants are influenced significantly by the soil temperature. In India, the soil temperature during summer month exceeds 54° C. This high temperature will certainly influence the above factors and ultimately affect the efficiency of rhizobia. Since, the soil temperature under field condition cannot be controlled, temperature tolerant strains have to be used. Similarly, soil monisture or water stress limits not only the survival of
rhizobia but also their symbiotic association with pulse crops. Taneja et al (1980) reported that water stress (-2 to -4 bars) resulted in decreased growth of Rhizobium strains. Mohammed et al. (1991) reported that the salt tolerant Rhizobium strains are more tolerant to moistore stress.
Soil reactions viz., salinity and acidity have a great impact on rhizobia and their symbiotic activity. High concentration of salts has a detrimental effect on host, rhizobia and their symbiosis. Salt stress decreases symbiotic efficiency to levels below the genetic potential of host - Rhizobium association and thus may decrease plant growth and grain yield (Singleton and Bohlool, 1983). Levels of salinity that inhibits the growth of the individual symbionts (Subba Rao et al., 1972). Sodium chloride concentrations that affect the symbiosis between Rhizobium and chickpea are lower than those that affect the growth of individual chickpea genotypes or Rhizobium spp. (Sexena and Revari 1992). Legumes are generally more sensitive to osmotic stress than their microsymbiont, the rhizobia. Likewise, soil acidity also found to affect the symbiotic nitrogen fixation, limiting Rhizobium survival and persistence in soils and reducing nodulation (Munns, 1986). Some species of rhizobia tolerate acidity better than others. Reduction of soil acidity and associated production of legume nodulation and N2 fixation can be achieved by liming.
Among the soil chemical factors that influence symbiotic nitrogen fixation in pulse crops, mineral nitrogen concentration is the most important one. In general, high soil nitrogen levels, applied or residual, reduce nodulation and N2 - fixation. Based on several studies, nodulation and / or nitrogen fixation was reduced by approximately 50% in different legumes, when nitrogen concentration in root environment was between 20 and 90 mg / kg in the growth medium. The suppression in symbiotic nitrogen fixation is particularly due to the nitrate fraction in the root growth environment (Streeter, 1988). The exact mechanism of inhibition is not very clear. Other nutrients affecting nodulation include P,K, Mo, Zn, Fe, Mg,, S, CO, Ca ,Cd, Mu and Cu. Phosphorus deficiency is a factor that commonly restricts the realization of the potential of N2 - fixation by legumes. In addition, only 30% of P is available to the crop if applied as chemical fertilizer due to fixation in soil. Experiments conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University indicates that dual inoculation of pulse crop with rhizobia and phosphobacteria is found to enhance 'P' uptake by plants and consequently giving better nodulation, plants growth and yield in various pulses crops (Table 7,8,9 and 10).
Table 7. Effect of Combined inoculation of Rhizobium and phosphobacteria
on the available "P" content of soil and "P" uptake in redgram
Treatments
Available "P" mg /g soil
"P" Uptake
mg/g plant
Control
6.3
6.2
Rhizobium
7.7
8.1
Super phosphate (S.P)
9.1
11.5
Rock phosphate (R.P)
8.0
9.3
P.S.B. 1+ S.P
9.5
11.8
P.S.B. 2+ S.P
10.0
10.8
P.S.B. 1+ R.P
10.3
9.9
P.S.B. 2
10.0
10.0
P.S.B. 1 + RHI + S.P
10.9
12.9
P.S.B. 2 + RHI + S.P
11.0
11.7
P.S.B. 1+ RHI + R.P
12.3
12.3
P.S.B. 2+ RHI + R.P
12.0
11.6
CD
0.86
0.9
Table 8. Effect of Rhizobium on redgram (CO.5)
Treatments
Nodule No/pl
Nodule
dry wt. mg/pl
Plant
dry wt. g.pl
Haulms weight
t/ha
Grain yield
kg / ha
% increase overcont
Uninoculated
6.3
10.4
6.1
6.820
192
-
Rhizobium (Rhiz)alone
11.3
13.6
7.6
7.017
194
1.04
Super phosphate (S.P)
11.0
14.5
8.0
7.233
198
3.12
Rock Phosphate (R.P)
10.0
12.8
8.4
6.953
198
3.12
Phos.1 + S.P
9.0
11.1
9.4
7.960
198
3.12
Phos.2 + S. P
11.7
13.9
9.4
8.187
214
25.50
Phos.1 + R.P
11.0
14.7
10.3
8.850
248
29.10
Phos.1 + R. P
13.3
17.3
9.9
9.510
272
41.60
Phos.1 + Rhiz + S.P
17.3
22.0
11.6
10.623
289
50.50
Phos.2 + Rhiz + S.P
17.7
25.8
11.2
10.537
311
61.90
Phos.1 + Rhiz + R.P
14.7
23.2
12.4
11.540
314
63.50
Phos.1 + Rhiz + R.P
15.7
24.0
12.4
12.123
328
70.80
SE
1.47
1.03
0.30
0.162
9.08
CD(P= 0.05)
4.31
3.07
0.91
0.481
27.08
Phos. 1 - Bacillus megatherium var. phosphoticum
Phos. 2 - Pseudomonas striata
Table 9. Effect of combined inoculation of Rhizobium and phosphobacteria
on the available P content of soil and P uptake in gereengram
Sl.No.
Treatments
* Available P mg /g soil
P uptake mg / g plant
1.
Control
6.2
5.9
2.
Rhizobium (Rhiz) alone
7.3
6.8
3.
Super phosphate (S.P)
8.2
11.3
4.
Rock phosphate (R.P)
8.3
8.6
5.
Phos.1 + S.P
9.7
11.6
6.
Phos.2 + S.P
9.4
10.6
7.
Phos.1 + R.P
10.2
10.8
8.
Phos.2 + R.P
10.3
9.6
9.
Phos1 + Rhiz + S.P
11.6
13.3
10.
Phos.2 + Rhiz + S.P
11.3
12.0
11.
Phos.1 + Rhiz + R.P
12.1
11.8
12.
Phos.2 + Rhiz.+ R.P
12.4
11.3
C.D
0.92
1.2
* Initial available P content = 15. 75 kg / ha
Phos. 1- Bacillus megatherium var. phosphoticum
Phos. 2 Pseudomonas striata
Table 10. Effect of Rhizobium and prosphobacteria on greengram
Treatment
Nodule No/Pl
Nodule dry wt.
Plant dry wt. g/pl
Haulms yield
t/ha
Grain yield kg /ha
% incr. over
conttrol
Uninoculated
13.3
16.0
1.6
2.292
479
-
Rhizobium (Rhiz) alone
21.0
22.7
2.5
2.534
561
17.1
Super phosphate (S.P)
22.3
15.3
2.3
2.396
516
7.7
Rock phosphate (R.P)
19.3
18.0
1.7
2.430
583
21.7
Phos. 1 + S.P
18.7
15.7
2.3
2.500
625
30.4
Phos. 2 + S. P
20.0
15.0
2.3
2.604
625
30.4
Phos. 1 + R. P
17.3
18.0
2.2
2.882
663
38.4
Phos. 2 + R. P
15.3
14.7
2.5
3.055
625
30.4
Phos. 1 +Rhiz+ S.P
21.0
24.7
2.6
3.021
645
34.6
Phos. 2 +Rhiz+ S.P
16.0
22.0
2.9
2.987
643
34.4
Phos. 1 + Rhiz + R.P
27.7
25.3
3.0
3.403
718
49.8
Phos. 2 + Rhiz + R.P
21.0
28.0
3.2
3.438
704
46.9
SIG
NS
**
**
**
**
SE
1.74
0.28
0.271
CD (P= 0.0
5.17
0.83
0.796
Among the secondary nutrients, calcium and magnesium play an important role in legume - Rhizobium symbiosis. Among micronutrients, the requirement of boron for nodule development is similar to that for growth of the host. Likewise, for nitrogen fixation Mo and Co are found essential. Above all, presence of organic matter in soil has favorable influence on the number of rhizobia, nodulation and nitrogen fixation.
b) Soil biological parameters
Inoculated rhizobia not only must compete for limited nutrients, but interactions with indigenous heterotrophic microbes and predators reduces the
capacity of inoculated rhizobia to maintain population densities at sufficient levels to ensure contact with susceptible legume roots. In the rhizosphere soil, where rhizobia are present in large numbers there is a chance for the build up of population of rhizobial phages. Negative interaction with them may influence the establishment of Rhizobium strain. Bdellovibrio, an intracellular bacterial parasite of Rhizobium is capable of infecting and lysing large population of rhizobia.
As the above mentioned factors influence the symbiotic activity location specific rhizobial strains are identified through screening many strains for each pulse crop. For example, the rhizobial strains CRU -15 and CC1 performed better than others in the field experiments with blackgram and redgram respectively (Table 12). Therefore these strains are being used for the mass production of rhizobial inoculant for blackgram and redgram.
Table 11. Testing of blackgram Rhizobium strains for effectivity
Sl.No.
Rhizobium strains
Grain yield (kg / ha)
1.
CRU -7
608
2.
CRU-15
635
3.
AUBR-17
606
4.
AUBR-10
628
5.
UPU -11
518
6.
UPU-20
506
7.
BUR-9528
557
8.
BUR-9533
620
9.
20 Kg N/ha
562
10.
Uninoculated control
489
CD (5%) 78
Table 12. Testing of redgram Rhizobium strains for effectivity
Rhizobium strains
Grain yield (kg / ha)
RA 5
720
DHA 19
730
JARS 70
690
GB 1
743
CC 1
780
20 kg N/ ha
730
Uninoculated control
620
CD (P=0.05)
-40.3
Further, the competition between indigenous microorganisms can be manipulated. Use of fungicides and antibiotics found to enhance the probability of rhizobial colonization. Hossain and Alexander (1984) augmented soybean rhizosphere colonization with Bradyrhizobium japonicum by using benomyl (a fungicide) and the antibiotics streptomycin and erthromycin. In this aspect, an antagonistic bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of pigeonpea on combined inoculation with Rhizobium found to enhance nodulation and crop yield (Table 13 ). This antagonistic bacterium inhibits the growth of several soil bacterial and fungal isolates and not the rhizobia
Table 13. Synergistic effect of dual inoculation of Rhizobium and
antagonistic bacteria on blackgram
Treatment
Nodule number / plant
Nodule dry wt.
/ plant
Grain yield kg / ha
Unioculated control
5.1
8.0
548
Rhizobium
20.0
30.3
670
Rhizobium + Antagonistic bacteria
24.2
38.0
728
Antagonistic bacterium
9.0
12.0
596
Conclusion
Considerable input of biologically fixed N can be achieved in almost all agricultural ecosystems through the activity of symbiotic associations. Strategies are available for pulse crops to manipulate N inputs through symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This can be achieved by changing the proportion of plant nitrogen derived from symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Management practices can be imposed which either increase the numbers of effective rhizobia in soil, reduce the levels of or legumes sensitivity to soil nitrate or enhance the potential for legume growth.
For increasing pulse crops yield through biofertilizers, the following strategy is suggested. Most important constraints to effective exploitation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation are
• The quality of the inoculants
• Lack of knowledge about inoculation technology for the extension personnel and the farmers
• Effective inoculant delivery system
• Formulation of the policy to exploit symbiotic nitrogen fixation successfully
For success of biofertilizers concerted efforts right from production, demonstration to distribution is required. The next step is convincing and educating the farmers regarding the benefits of these inoculants.
References
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Kremer, R.J., J. Polo and M.L Peterson 1982. Effect of suspending agent and temperature on survival of Rhizobium in fertilizer. Soil Sci. Soc Am.J. 46.: 539-542.
Kremer, R.J. and M.L. Peterson. 1983. Effects of carrier and temperature on survival of Rhizobium spp. in legume inoculation: development of an improved type of inoculant. Appl. Environ. Microbial 45: 1790 - 1794.
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PULSES STRATEGY IN TAMIL NADU
Dr.M.Subramanian*
Pulses are not only the important food grain to supply protein which forms part of the vegetarian diet, it is also useful in many ways. It is a rich source of protein and possesses 2-3 times more than that of many other cereals. The protein composition makes up the deficiency of essential amino acids in cereals and millets. (Table 1)
Table 1. Nutrient content pulses
Nutrient / Pulses
Redgram
Blackgram
Greengram
Bengalgram
Soyabean
Moisture (%)
13.4
10.9
10.1
9.9
8.1
Protein (%)
22.3
24.0
24.5
20.8
43.2
Fat (%)
1.7
1.4
1.2
5.6
19.5
Carbohydrates (%)
57.6
59.6
59.9
59.8
20.9
Minerals (%)
3.5
3.2
3.5
2.7
4.6
Calcium (mg)
73.0
154.0
75.0
56.0
240.0
Phosphorus (mg)
304.0
385.0
45.0
331.0
690.0
Iron (mg)
5.8
9.1
8.5
1.1
11.5
Total N (%)
3.6
4.2
3.9
3.3
6.9
Calorie value
335.0
347.0
451.0
372.0
432.0
Vitamin ‘A’
(mg/100 g)
220.0
64.0
83.0
2160.0
710.0
Pulses enrich the soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen in the root nodules and improves the soil structure (Asthana and Chaturvedi, 1999). The tap root system opens the soil into deeper strata and heavy leaf protein increases the soil organic matter and improves the soil structure. Pulses are ideal crop for mixed, and intercropping and also serve as nutritious vegetables and fodders. The seeds of lab lab, peas, pigeon pea and chickpeas are used as green vegetables while mungbean, urd bean and cowpea are used as green fodders for cattle.
* Director of Research, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore
India, the sub continent is growing pulses in about 22.39 million ha with a production of 14-24 million tones of pulses. This works out to an average productivity of 1623 kg/ha (1999.) Redgram, blackgram, greengram, bengalgram, horsegram, lentil, peas and beans, soyabeans and cowpea are some of the important pulse crops grown in many parts of the country. Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh are the important States which grow the pulses in area ranged from 9.2 (Bihar) to 51.11 lakh ha (Madhya Pradesh). (Table 2)
Table 2. State – wise area, output and yield of pulses
State
Area (l/ha)
Ouput (l/t)
Yield (kg/ha)
Andhra Pradesh
16.10
8.38
477
Arun.P.
0.07
0.07
-
Assam
0.98
0.51
520
Bihar
9.10
7.45
671
Goa
0.10
0.08
-
Gujarat
9.20
6.64
721
Haryana
4.20
3.45
823
H.P
0.72
0.11
-
J & K
0.35
0.17
470
Karnataka
17.50
7.22
382
Kerala
0.21
0.15
800
Madhya Pradesh
51.70
35.44
719
Maharashtra
33.30
20.37
613
Meghalaya
0.03
0.03
-
Mizoram
0.04
0.07
-
Nagaland
0.08
0.14
1070
Orissa
8.50
2.26
350
Punjab
1.03
0.80
540
Rajashtan
38.00
18.45
494
Sikkim
0.07
0.06
-
Tamil Nadu
9.50
2.33
430
Tripura
0.07
0.06
924
Uttar Pradesh
28.80
26.25
672
West Bengal
2.30
1.72
-
A & N Islands
0.20
0.01
-
D & N Haveli
0.04
0.03
-
Daman, Diu
0.01
0.01
-
Delhi
0.02
0.02
-
Pondicherry
0.06
0.04
-
All India
223.90
142.44
623
The average productivity of pulses ranged from 350 (Orissa) to 1070 kg ha (Nagaland). This productivity is very low when compared to cereals, millets and oilseeds. The annual production growth of pulses is estimated to be only 0.3% when compared to 2.6% in cereals. The current productivity level of pulses is very low which could not meet the per capita requirement of pulses ie; 80 gms day as recommended by the FAO/WHO. The current per capita availability of pulses is below 40 grams.
The requirement of protein in Indian diet has to be met through pulses especially for the vegetarians. The country will need 30.3 million tons of pulses by 2020 AD since the population will touch 1350 million by that time. But the pulses production remains stagnated for about 4 decades it should be increased through many possible approaches.
The following are the main reasons to low productivity of pulses in India. (1) Out of 22.39 million ha, about 78% of the area is under rainfed conditions (2) The soils where the pulse crops are grown are highly low in their nutrition level (3) unfavourable weather conditions like eratic and uncertain rainfall, low and high temperature and moisture stress at various crop growth stages (4) poor soil fertility and moisture retention capacity (5) soil salinity and alkalinity (6) the protein rich pulses crops are highly susceptible to various pests and diseases (7) number of storage grain pests cause considerable losses (8) lack of high yielding pest and disease tolerant pulse varieties (9) farmers devote poor attention to the pulses cultivation (10) mostly grown as mixed crop, intercrop, bund crop etc. (11) lack of fine tuned package practices for pulses cultivation (12) highly susceptible to drought and water logged conditions (13) poor storability and lack of storage facility and (14) fluctuation in the weather conditions affect the crop very much.
Rice Fallow Pulses
Pulses are cultivated under irrigated as well as rainfed conditions. They are cultivated in another unique ecosystem knows as ‘Rice fallow condition’. In the residual soil moisture in this system, the pulses particularly blackgram (Urd) and green gram (Mungbean) are broadcast, 7-10 days before the harvest of paddy crop and allowed to germinate and grow. Since pulses are grown under paddy stubbles the pulses crops have to survive in the residual moisture of the soil, besides frost & mist available during the period will also provide all comforts to grow well and yield with in 65-70 days of sowing. However, yield recorded in this ecosystem is highly variable mostly and depends on the management practices followed. The yield ranged from 300-500 kg/ha. This reduced production obtained from rice fallow pulses are due to
�� Very low extent of cultivation
�� Sowing is not done at the appropriate time (Jan 15 –Feb 15)
�� Use of poor quality seed with low germination (farmers seed)
�� Poor seed and poor population
�� Prevalence of drought during reproductive stage
�� Full of weeds
�� Non practice of DAP spraying
�� High pest and disease incidence
Besides, blackgram and green gram soyabean was introduced as rice fallow crop; but this is a highly sensitive crop to high temperature (340C) particularly at reproductive stage. The soyabean crop develops pods with out seeds due to high temperature if prevailed during reproductive stage. It has caused heavy loss to the farmers, which inhibited further promotion of soyabean area and cultivation in cauvery delta zone of Tamil Nadu.
Rice fallow area is a potential one, therefore careful and appropriate management of pulse crops will increase the yield. There is every possibility to expand the area of rice fallow with the pulses.
Like Rice, Cereals, Oilseeds, Millets etc., research outcome for the benefit of increasing yield in pulses is not much. Particularly biotechnological approach to get pulses resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses coupled with high yield is very minimum. However, if the following recommendations are followed the pulses production can be increased.
USE OF NEW HIGH YIELDING VARIETIES AND HYBRIDS
Redgram (Arhar, Tur, Pigeon pea) (Cajanus cajan)
It is an important pulse crop grown throughout India and gives better yield. Research done over the years has resulted in the release of hybrid pigeon peas ICPH8, PPH 4, CO H 1, COPH2 and AKPH 4101. Besides, long duration (180-200 days) redgram has been reduced in their maturity period and early maturing redgram varieties in 90-100 days viz APK1 and Vamban1 were developed in Tamil Nadu. These can be raised as pure crop as well as inter and mixed crop with cereals/millets/oilseeds and harvested in a shorter period. The are also suitable for multiple cropping Besides, the longer duration redgram varieties like SA1 & Vamban 2 as Perannial redgram BSR 1 can be raised as intercrop and bund crop to boost productivity.
Blackgram (Urd) (Phaseolus aureus)
Very commonly cultivated pulse crop in India as well as in Tamil Nadu. It suffers from heavy incidence of mungbean yellow mosaic virus transmitted by a white fly (Bemisia tabaci) However, resistant varieties like Vamban 1, Vamban 2 and Vamban 3 blackgram varieties have been released for cultivation. It can also be raised as inter as well as mixed crop with cereals / millets / oilseeds. It also suits for bund cropping.
Greengram (Mungbean) (Phaseolus mungo)
It is yet another highly nutritious pulse crop popularly cultivated in India. Tamil Nadu is also having considerable area under this pulse. It also suffers from MYMV disease however newly released varieties like CO 6, Paiyur 1 and Vamban 1 are tolerant to this disease. This crop can be also raised as inter and mixed crop with cereals/millets/oilseeds and raised as bund crop.
A new variety known as ‘Pusa bold’, was recently introduced from AVRDC, Taiwan which possesses bold seeds without any hard seeds and matures in 50-55 days. It gives about 500 kg of yield /ha.
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) CO1 and Paiyur 1, Horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) CO4, CO 6 Vamban 1, Vamban 2, CO2 and Unguiculata sp; Paiyur 2 Bengal gram (Chick pea) (Cicer arietinum) CO3, CO4 and Soyabean (Glycine max) CO1 and CO2 are other pulses crops cultivated in considerable area in Tamil Nadu as well as in India.
Rice fallow pulses
1. Blackgram - ADT 3 and ADT 4 (65 –70 days) 750-1000 kg/ha
2. Greengram - ADT 3 (75 days) 850 kg/ha
3. Soyabean - ADT 1 (85 days) 12750 kg/ha.
RESISTANT PULSE CROPS (Chandra, 1991)
Crop varieties Resistant to
Redgram
BDN1, BDN 2 and Maruthi (KP 8863) wilt
Bahar, CO 5, Vamban 2 COPH 2 and APK1 sterility mosaic
WB 20 & DA9 Alternaria blight
CO 5 Root rot and mod
Resistant to pod fly
Chick Pea (gram)
CO 3, CO 4, Pusa 212, JG 315 Avrodhi BG 244 wilt
and ICC 32
H355 Root rot
Blackgram (urd)
CO 5 Moderately resistant
Vamban, 1, Vamban 2, Vamban 3, to powdery mildew
Pant U 19, Pant U 30, UG 18and PDU 1 Yellow mosaic
ADT 3 Leaf Crinkle
Greengram (Mung bean)
CO6, ML 267, ML 337, Pant mung 2 Yellow mosaic
Pant mung 1, and Pant mung 3 Yellow mosaic 2
macrophomina
CO4 Tip blight &
root rot
Management practices
Optimum population stand should be maintained for all pulses (33 no/m2) except redgram, which needs 11 no/m2.
Seed hardening for drought management and use of specific Rhizobium (600 gr/ha) seed treatment for all pulses are highly essential.
Phosphobacteria (600 g / ha) seed treatment for all pulses to increase ‘P’ use efficiency. Application of Trichoderma viridi (4g/kg of seed) as seed treatment to control diseases like welt and nematode.
Application of sulphur through gypsum at 40 kg/ha increases the yield in ‘S’ deficient soil. Integrated weed management is very essential to avoid the competition of weeds with pulse crops and increase the yield.
Rice fallow Pulses
1. Use of improved varieties like ADT 3 & ADT 4 blackgram and ADT 3 greengram
2. Sowing / broadcasting of pulses between January 15 and February 15th
3. Use of quality picked seeds to maintain the required population
4. Foliar spray (2% DAP) twice.
Population maintenance
This is one of important criteria by which yield is affected very much. The population ie; 33 no/m2 is fixed as an optimum population for getting higher yield at the seed rate of 20 kg/ha, but generally the population is not maintained due to various reasons. So to maintain the population, about 1-2 kgs of Blackgram / greengram seeds are soaked and allowed to sprout previous day after the harvest of paddy, the sprouted seeds are sown wherever gaps and patches are seen.
Foliar spray
Supplementary foliar spray of 250 liters of solution / ha with the following chemical will boost the yield of pulses.
Chemicals Blackgram Greengram
Urea 7.5kg 7.5-10 kg
DAP 1.95kg 1.9-2.6 kg
Muriak of potash 1.31 kg 1.31 – 1.75kg
Potassium sulphet 1.05 kg 50 g
Succmic acid 40 g 50 g
Teepal 125 ml 125 ml
First spray 25 DAS 25 DAS
Second spray 40 DAS 40 DAS
Preconditioning
The gunny bags are first soaked in water than excess water is removed by squeezing. The pulse seeds are spread to a depth of 1-2 cm on the gunny bag and covered with another moist gunny bag.
The preconditional seeds are then soaked in aqueous botanical leaf extracts of prosopis and pungam using 1% solution each mixed with 1:1 ratio. To prepare 1 litre of botanical extract 10 grams in each of prosopis and pungam forest leaves are macerated in to paste separately and both put in to water and made up the volume to 1 lit.
Soak the preconditioned seeds in this prepared solution using 1:0.3 ratio i.e 1 kg of seeds in 300 ml of leaf extract gently stir the seeds occasionally to have uniform absorption. After 1 hour, drain the solution and dry the seeds in the shade.
Invigouration
Following seed hardening the seeds are treated with halogen formulation at 3g kg-1 of seed (5 parts of pure bleaching powder : 4 parts of finally powdered chalk powder : 1 part of arappu leaf powder mixed). This treatment should be given to the seeds at the time of drying.
Future thrust
�� Development of plant types responsive to high inputs
�� Development of early maturing location specific pulse varieties suitable for multiple cropping
�� Development of pigeonpea hybrids and efficient hybrid seed production technologies
�� Application of biotechnological tool to overcome the problem on resistant breeding particularly YMV, SMD etc., and yield stability
�� Development of some clones, transgenic plants marker assisted selection should be given priority.
�� New source of CMS lines are to be identified through intergeneric crosses.
�� Evaluation and maintenance of germ plasm
�� Strengthening basic research on physiological and nutritional aspects for increasing photosynthetic efficiencies
�� Development of pulse varieties tolerant to various abiotic stresses (High and low temp, drought and salt stress alkalinity and excessive moisture etc)
�� Development of integrated pest and disease management practices
�� Strengthening the post harvest Tech.research
�� Efficient and effective extension methods through on farm testing and front line demonstration for the improved varieties and technologies
�� Standardisation of quality seed production
�� Increasing the storage ability and storage facility
�� Well defined location specific package of practices need to be developed for
i) Seed rate and seed treatment
ii) Population maintenance
iii) Foliar spray
iv) Irrigation schedule and methods
v) Use of biofertilizers like Rhizobium etc.,
vi) Effective but cost effective INM.
References
Asthana, A.N. and S.K. Chaturdevi, 1999. A little impetus needed. The Hindu survey of Indian Agriculture, 1999 p.61-65.
Chandra, S. 1991. Poised for a break through the Hindu survey of Indian Agriculture, 1991 p.73-79.
PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF CULTIVATION OF
PULSES AND PROSPECTS OF SUMMER IRRIGATED
PULSES IN TAMIL NADU
Dr.C.Surendran1 and Dr.AR.Muthiah2
A wide array of pulses is cultivated in India including Bengalgram, Redgram, Greengram, Blackgram and lentil besides some minor pulses viz., Moth bean, Cowpea etc. The cultivation of grain legumes provides cheapest source of plant protein. Although the production of pulses has increased to some extent since independence the per capita availability has declined substantially. It implies that the increase in production has not kept pace with the growing population. The per capita availability of pulses has gone down from 60-70g in 1950-51 to 42.00 g in 1996-97. The per capita availabiling of total food grains has, however, gone up from 349.90g in 1950-51 to 560.00 g in 1996-97. Hence the total food grains availability has gone up mainly due to the increased production of cereals. This has resulted in cereal - pulse imbalance in the diet.
While the world health organisation recommends 80 g as a per capita consumption of pulses per day and the Indian Council of Medical Research has recommends a minimum consumption of 47g/day. The actual consumption in India, however is much less i.e., around 30-35 g per capita per day.
Status of pulses in Tamil Nadu
The total area under pulses in Tamil Nadu fluctuated from 4.93 (1982-1983) to 9.61 lakh hectares (1995-96) in the last two decades and the average area is around 7.0 lakh hectares. The productivity of all the pulses put together in the state raised from 322 (1979-80) to 492 kg/ha (1994-95) in the last two decades and the average productivity is around 410 kg/ha.
1. Director, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, TNAU, Coimbatore
2. Professor and Head, Pulses, TNAU, Coimbatore
Redgram (Cajanus cajan)
The area of under pigeonpea in the state fluctuated from 0.60 (1980-81) to 1.66 lakh hectares (1995-96) in the last two decades and the average area under pigeonpea is around 1.07 lakh hectares. The productivity of pigeonpea varied from 452 (1993-94) and 979 kg/ha (1986-87) in the last two decades and the average productivity of pigeonpea is around 671 Kg/ha.
Blackgram (Vigna mungo)
The area under blackgram in the state varied from 1.19 (1982-83) to 3.40 lakh ha (1995-96) in the last two decades and the average area is around 2.53 lakh hectares. The productivity of blackgram was between 209 (1983-84) and 523 kg/ha (1994-95) in the last two decades and the average productivity is around 406 kg/ha.
Greengram (Vigna radiata)
The area under greengram in the state fluctuated from 0.19 (1982-83) to 1.63 lakh hectares (1996-97) in the last two decades and the average area under mungbean is around 0.88 lakh hectares. The productivity also varied from 181 (1983-84) to 480 kg/ha (1996-97) in the last two decades and the average productivity is around 394 kg/ha.
Horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum)
The area under horsegram fluctuated in the state from 1.95 lakh ha (1979-80) to 1.03 lakh ha (1988-89) in the last two decades and the average area is around 1.38 lakh hectares. The productivity was between 233 (1979-80) and 497 kg/ha (1993-94) in the last two decades and the average productivity is around 398 kg/ha.
Bengalgram (Cicer arietinum)
The area under bengalgram in the state fluctuated from 0.04 (1995-96) to 0.10 lakh ha (1994-95) in the last two decades and the average area is around 0.08 lakh hectares. The productivity varied from 527 (1996-97) to 714 kg/ha (1988-89) and the average productivity is around 628 kg/ha in the last two decades.
Other pulses (Cowpea, Garden lablab, field lablab, French bean, Peas etc.)
The area under other pulses fluctuated from 0.65 (1979-80) to 3.02 lakh ha (1986-87) in the last two decades and the average area is around 1.62 lakh hectares. The productivity was between 162 (1995-96) and 362 kg/ha (1982-83) in the last two decades and the average productivity is around 231 kg/ha.
General constraints to pulse production in the state
�� Redgram, blackgram and greengram are mostly grown as rainfed crop, that too as a mixed crop / border crop / intercrop.
�� Susceptibility of pigeonpea to pod borer Helicoverpa armigera and to the diseases like wilt and sterility mosaic.
�� Indeterminate tall growth of pigeonpea makes the plant protection difficult.
�� Sowing of blackgram and greengram under rice fallow conditions if delayed beyond February, 15th, there is drastic reduction in the productivity in rice fallow pulses.
�� Poor plant stand and terminal moisture stress are the two major constraints for rice fallow pulses viz., blackgram and greengram in Tamil Nadu and the normal area under rice fallow blackgram is around 1.75 lakh ha and greengram is around 0.5 lakh ha in the state.
�� Greengram and blackgram are susceptible to mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV), besides they are susceptible to powdery mildew, cercospora leaf spot and to leaf curl virus.
�� Adequate population of blackgram and greengram could not be maintained under rice fallow conditions especially due to improper levelling.
�� Susceptibility of bengalgram to root rot wilt as well as to the pod borer Helicoverpa armigera
�� Pulses in general do not withstand, heavy rains in October - November and prolonged drought in July - August.
�� Lack of fertilizer responsive varieties in pulses
�� Use of poor quality seeds and non availability of quality seeds in time. Seed Production in pulses is mostly taken up by TNAU and State Agricultural Departments and Private seed Companies are not taking up seed production in pulses.
�� Unremunarative and unstable prices for pulses
�� Inadequate technology transfer to farming community.
�� High sensitivity of pulses towards environmental flucluations
Specific problems in pulses
Cropwise and zone wise problems are listed below to enable the scientists to develop suitable technologies for different crops and different locations to enhance pulse production.
A. Redgram
�� Mainly raised as rainfed agriculture with moisture strees due to low precipitation
�� Raised as intercrop in marginal and submarginal lands.
�� High risk factor as a rainfed crop prohibits the increase in area.
�� Susceptibility to diseases like wilt, sterility mosaic etc.
�� Susceptibility to pests like pod borer, podfly etc.
�� Indeterminate tall stature of cultivars makes plant protecion difficult
B. Greengram
�� Uncertainity in time of sowing of rice fallow crop. Sowing after the harvest of paddy depends on release of water in Cauvery. If the sowing is delayed for greengram beyond February 15 the yield per day is reduced
�� Plant stand in rice fallow condition is not optimum
�� As a rainfed crop during kharif and rabi , crop yields are uncertain and depend on unpredictable precipitation
�� High risk factor is susceptibility to YMV, powdery mildew, Cercospora leaf spot and leaf curl and stemfly.
C. Blackgram
�� Uncertainity in time of sowing in rice fallows as sowing depends on the paddy sowing which in turn depends on release of water in Cauvery
�� Optimum plant population in rice fallows can not be maintained
�� Yellow mosaic, powdery mildew and Cercospora leaf spot and
�� Stemfly and spodoptera menace.
D. Bengalgram
�� Root rot and wilt
�� Heliothis pod borer
�� Uncertain winter - need for early maturing varieties
PULSES PRODUCTION CONSTRAINTS ZONE WISE
I. North eastern zone (Thiruvallur, Kancheepuram, Vellore, Thiruvannamalai and Cuddalore districts)
�� Mostly sown as rainfed crop
�� Mostly as mixed, inter and border crop
�� Susceptibility to YMV, pests and diseases
�� Pulses dot not withstand heavy rain in October - November and prolonged drought in July - August
�� Heliothis on redgram
�� Powdery mildew, Cercospora, rust, wilt and leaf spot
II. Cauvery delta zone (Thanjavur, Nagapattinam, Tiruvarur, Trichy, Cuddalore districts)
�� Damage by cyclones and floods
�� YMV, powdery mildew, leaf spot in blackgram and greengram
�� Plant stand and terminal moisture stress
III. North western zone (Dharmapuri, Salem districts)
�� Mostly as rainfed crop
�� Mostly as mixed or inter crop
�� Horsegram grown in vast area during rabi (September - October)
�� Lack of fertiliser responsive varieties and genetic variability
�� Poor adoption of available technical knowledge
IV. Central zone (Trichy and Pudukkottai districts)
�� Mostly as a mixed crop with sorghum or bajra
�� Disease like YMV, powdery mildew
�� Pests like Heliothis, pod borer etc.
V. Western zone (Coimbatore and Erode districts)
�� Pulses are grown under rainfed condition
�� Pulses are grown as a mixed crop and border crop
�� Lack of fertiliser responsiveness
�� Susceptibility to YMV and powdery mildew
�� Heavy incidence of Heliothis and pod borer
�� Failure to adopt package of practices
VI. Southern zone (Madurai, Ramnad, Sivagangai, Virudhunagar and
Tirunelveli districts)
�� Lesser area coverage by certified seeds
�� Less use of bio-fertilizers
�� Mostly as a rainfed crop
�� Poor adoption of technical knowledge
�� Pulses are grown with less attention
Technologies to over come constraints
In redgram, Vamban 1 is to be replaced by Aruppukottai 1 (APK 1) which is resistant to sterility mosaic disease. It is a short duration redgram and as an irrigated summer crop has a very good potential of yielding 1000-1200 Kg/ha. In 120-130 days maturity group CO 5 redgram can be grown in all districts of the state.
In 180 days group, Vamban 2 redgram to replace SA 1 and CO 6. It is resistant to sterility mosaic disease and gives an average yield of 1050 kg/ha. CO 6 redgram being tolerant to pod borer, it can be continued in areas where pod borer menace is a regular future.
COPH 2 , a hybrid redgram, maturing in 120-130 days is suitable for the June-July, September-October and January - February sowings with an average yield potential of 1050 Kg/ha.
Bund cropping
BSR 1 redgram - perennial redgram can be kept for more than two years by ratooning. BSR 1 recommended for Kitchen garden, backyards, farm road sides etc. The average seed yield of 750g to one Kg per plant.
IPM technologies for pod borer control
�� Grow varieties which are tolerant to pod borer
�� Use of pheromone traps to monitor emergence of adults
�� Use of NPV (500 larval equivalent per ha)
�� Spraying Neem seed kernel extract
�� If larvae stage is in the third instar start spraying endosulfan 35EC. 1.25 lit per hectare
�� NSKE 5%, Neem oil 2% and phasalone 0.07% are effective in the
�� management of pest complex and for higher yield
�� Mechanical removal of late stage larvae
Use of appropriate bacterial cultures
There is ample scope for increasing the average yield by way of using appropriate rhizobium cultures. These cultures not only increase yield but also upgrade fertility status of the soil. At TNAU the following newer strains were introduced for specific crop.
Rhizobium
Yield increase (%)
Crop
COG 15
30
Greengram
COC 10
23
Blackgram
CC 1
12-60
Redgram
COBe 13
25-30
Bengalgram
COC 10
35
Cowpea
Blackgram and Greengram
Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) is the major constraint.
Vamban 3 blackgram which is resistant to yellow mosaic virus disease and capable of giving an average yield of 775 Kg/ha and 825 Kg/ha under rainfed and irrigated conditions respectively. It can be cultivated throughout Tamil Nadu in the place of TMV 1, T9, Vamban 1 and Vamban 2.
CO 6 greengram which matures in 65-70 days is resistant to yellow mosaic virus and gives an average yield of 982 Kg/ha. It can replace KM 2 greengram.
Rice fallow pulses Management
1. Use of higher seed rate to maintain adequate population
2. Foliar application of 2% DAP twice one at flowering and another 15 days after flowering results in increased yield due to well developed seeds.
3. Foliar spraying of 0.5 per cent potassium chloride during flowering will not allow yield loss due to water stress
Under cold season pulses, horsegram and bengalgram play an important role in adding to the pulse production in the State. CO 1, Paiyur 1 and Paiyur 2 horsegram varieties with in 100-110 days duration and capable of giving an average yield of 600-900 Kg/ha under rainfed conditions can also be used as fodder pulses.
Other pulses
There are several legumes notably winged bean and ricebean hold great promise. Both are rich sources of protein. Their protein quality is on par with the commonly grown pulses. For example, the mean protein content of the winged bean is about 34.2 per cent. It also contains 16-18 per cent fat in
addition to appreciable quantity of iron and calcium. All parts of winged bean are edible. Therefore these legumes can also be cultivated to alleviate malnutrition and hunger.
Less known pulses like limabean, swordbean, dewgram etc. can also be popularised.
Broadening genetic base
The experience of plant breeders reveal that the genetic bases of pulses are very narrow i.e the genetic variability is limited. Genetic base can be broadened by extensive exploration and collection of germplasm of economic as well as related wild species.
Summer irrigated pulses
The wide spread of north east monsoon in Tamil Nadu state, will lering a comfortable storage of water in all reservoirs and tanks, improve soil moisture and ground water availability. There is possibility of increasing the area under irrigated pulses dueing this period. Monocrop concept is necessary in tank fed areas and rice follows. The production of pulses can be improved, if thay are judiciously introduced in cropping systems, thereby they share the advantage of fertile lands, irrigation and other inputs.
The demand for more pulse production necessitated the strengthening of crop improvement, to get increased output per unit area and creating new genotypes for production in non traditional areas. This can be achieved by combining genetic and agronomic improvement. The recent achievement in genetic and agronomic improvement of pulse i.e. the development of short duration pigeonpea (Redgram) can be quoted as an example. Simlarly in blackgram and greengram MYMV resistant genotypes with early duration, and well suited to summer irrigated situations have also been developed. Hybrid redgram can be grown under summer irrigated situations in districts like Erode, Coimbatore, Salem, Madurai and in other potential districts.
The following are the varieties best suited for summer irrigated situation in different pulse crops.
Blackgram : ADT 5, TMV 1 and CO 5
Redgram : Vamban 1, Aruppukkottai 1 (APK 1) and COPH 2 hybrid
Greengram : CO 6 and KM 2
Soyabean : CO 1 and CO 2
Cowpea : CO 2 (Vegetable) CO 4 and CO 6 (grain types)
Cultivation of blackgram as summer crop can be tried in the potential areas like Salem, Tirunelveli, Trichy, Kancheepuram, Thiruvallur, Dindigul, Madurai, Thoothukudi, Dharmapuri, Erode and Coimbatore Districts. The greengram is having a chance of giving high productivity in districts like Salem, Dindigul, Tirunelveli, Coimbatore, Erode, Thiruvallur, Kancheepuram and Thoothukudi Districts.
Soyabean
It may be grown as a pure crop during February - March with CO 1 and CO 2 varieties in all districts except Kanyakumari and Nilgiris.
Cowpea
It is a cosmopoliton pulse can be raised as a sole crop during February - March in the districts like Salem, Coimbatore, Erode, Madurai, Trichy and Tirunelveli with Vamban 2 and CO2 (vegetable) and CO 4 and CO 6 varieties (grain types).
Particulars of varieties of different pulse crops that can be grown during
summer in Tamil Nadu.
S.No.
Variety
Year of release
Duration (days)
Yield Kg/ha (irrigated)
Redgram
1
Vamban 1
1992
95-100
1200
2
Aruppukkottai 1
(APK 1)
1999
95-105
1250
3
COPH 2 (Hybrid)
1997
120-130
1350
Blackgram
4
CO 5
1981
70-75
1250
5
TMV 1
1979
65-70
1200
6
ADT 5
1988
70-75
1550
Greengram
7
CO 6
1999
65-70
1300
8
KM 2
1978
65-70
1150
Cowpea
9
CO 4
1983
85
1570
10
CO 6
1993
70
1500
11
CO 2
1972
90
11 tons green pods
12
Vamban 2
1998
85
10.6 tons green pods
Soybean
12
CO 1
1980
85
1600
13
CO 2
1995
75-80
1350
RECENT MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR RICE FALLOW PULSES
Dr.S. Ramanathan*
Food is complete and balanced only when pulses, the basic ingredients are included. Pulses are the major sources for the protein. According to FAO/WHO’s recommendation every individual needs 85 grams of pulses/day to meet the protein requirement but at present per capita availability of pulses is only 40 grams/day in India. This situation warrants to produce 3 fold increase as that of the current pulse production even to meet the minimum need.
Pulses are cultivated in about 226 lakh hectares in India with production of 121 lakh metric tonnes build up from an average productivity of 534 kg/ha. The per hectare productivity of pulses in India is very low when compared to the average productivity of 1494 and 637 kg/ha in other developed and developing countries respectively, as well as the global average pulse productivity of 797 kg/ha.
The important pulse crops grown in Tamil Nadu are redgram, blackgram, greengram, soybean, cowpea, bengalgram lal lab and horsegram. They are cultivated in about 8.2 lakhs hectares with the production of 3.7 lakhs metric tonnes. The average productivity of pulses in Tamil Nadu is about 449 kg/ha, which is very low when compared to Indian average of 534 kg/ha as well as other pulses producing states like, Haryana (936 kg/ha), Madhyapradesh (739 kg/ha), Uttarpradesh (795 kg/ha), Gujarat (572 kg/ha) etc. The low productivity of pulses is attributed to reasons as detailed below :
1. Lack of high yielding varieties
2. Pulses are given secondary importance due to their low productivity
3. Mostly cultivated as mixed, inter or border crop
4. Cultivated in marginal lands and grown as rainfed crops
5. Very minimum management
6. Pulses are not able to with stand prolonged drought/water stagnation
7. Susceptible to pests and diseases
8. Poor keeping quality
9. Lack of storage facilities
* Director, Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai
Recently protein famine is threatening the developing and under developed countries. To meet its requirement pulses, the rich protein crops need to be improved. Tamil Nadu ranks 10th in terms of area and 11th in terms of production at All India level. Current estimated (1998-99) total production of pulses in Tamil Nadu is 3.52 lakh metric tonnes. Since the annual requirement of pulses for our state is 11 lakh tonnes, the balance is being met form the neighbouring states. While such is the present scenario, the area under pulses should be increased with high yielding varieties, in order to obtain self sufficiency in pulse production.
It is evident that the area under pulses has been increased during the period and productivity has also been increased form 322 kg/ha (1979-80) to 490 kg/ha (1996-97) (Table 1). The increase in productivity is attributed to the combined effect of improved crop varieties with efficient crop management practices.
Table 1. Total area, production and productivity of pulses in Tamil Nadu.
Years
Area in L.ha
Production L.M.T.
Productivity Kg/ha
1979-80
6.06
1.95
322
1980-81
5.44
1.76
324
1981-82
5.58
1.89
337
1982-83
4.93
1.89
383
1983-84
6.03
2.22
367
1984-85
6.18
2.49
403
1985-86
5.82
2.75
473
1986-87
6.89
3.12
453
1987-88
6.35
2.83
451
1988-89
6.25
2.48
397
1989-90
8.21
3.34
407
1990-91
8.47
3.59
424
1991-92
7.76
3.51
453
1992-93
7.39
3.43
464
1993-94
6.90
2.76
401
1994-95
6.91
3.40
492
1995-96
9.61
3.59
374
1996-97
9.53
4.10
430
1997-98
8.05*
3.40
422*
1998-99
8.14*
3.52
432*
* Estimated
Area production and productivity of major pulses in Tamil Nadu
Among the different pulse crops grown blackgram occupies the major area followed by greengram and redgram (Table 2). By adopting improved method of technologies like improved variety, optimum time of sowing, plant population, suitable rhizobial inoculation, fertilizer application, timely weed management practices, need based plant protection measures coupled with proper irrigation schedule would definitely increased the yield of pulses.
Table 2. Area, Production and Productivity of pulses in Tamil Nadu
Crops
Area L.Ha
Production L.MT
Productivity Kg/ha
Blackgram
3.67
1.43
390
Greengram
1.63
0.78
480
Redgram
1.41
1.22
864
Horsegram
1.23
0.54
431
Bengalgram
0.09
0.05
625
Other pulses
1.50
0.25
164
Rice fallow pulses
Pulses are also cultivated under rice fallow conditions in about 2.6 lakh hectares in Tamil Nadu which is 30.75% of the total area under pulses in this state. Rice fallow pulses contribute about 40.5% of the total pulse production. The rice fallow pulses are cultivated in Trichirapalli (0.3 lakhs ha), Thanjavur (0.52 lakh ha), Nagapattinam (0.7 lakh ha), Vilupuram (0.48 lakh ha), Tirunelveli (0.18 lakh ha) and Tuticorin (0.36 lakh ha).
The success of rice fallow crop is depending upon many factors. However, average per hectare productivity of rice fallow pulses ranged from 300-500 kg/ha during favourable years but if soil moisture is inadequate, the yield will be drastically pulled down to 100 kg/ha. The following are the causes identified for the low productivity in rice fallow pulses.
01. Low area coverage
02. Use of poor quality seeds due to (farmers own seed) non availability of quality seeds
03. Sowing is not done at correct time due to late release of water/ non availability of irrigation water for rice
04. Poor germination of seeds
05. Water stress at flowering stage
06. Non adoption of DAP spraying
07. Excessive weed growth
08. Pests and disease problems
09. Sub optimal seed rate/inadequate population
10. Storage problem
11. Cattle grazing
12. Poor marketing
Therefore the current rice fallow pulses cultivation strategy needs to be reviewed critically to overcome the constraints and get higher yield. It is a potential area where considerable hectares of land are under pulses cultivation. A minimum of even 10 per cent yield increase will boost the pulses production considerably form rice fallow pulses.
The following are suggestions to boost the pulse productivity and production in Tamil Nadu.
I. Strengthening research on rice fallow pulses
a) Breeding
i) Maintenance and evaluation of germplasm
ii) Identification of resistant genes for YMV and crinkle virus diseases
iii) Intensifying inter varietal and inter specific hybridization programme
iv) Introduction of biotechnology approach
v) Identification varieties to suit rice fallow condition (includes short duration soyabean)
vi) Augmenting the quality seed production
b. Management
i) Technology for population maintenance
ii) Optimum seed rate and plant stand
iii) Time and method of sowing
iv) Use of organic inorganic and bio-fertilizers
v) Fertilizer management and application
vi) Micronutrient management
vii) Foliar spraying of nutrients/anti transparents/growth regulators
viii) Residual and fertility analysis after pulses harvest
ix) Cropping pattern – Pulses can be introduced as inter crop in rice fallow cotton / maize / vegetables
c. Protection
i) Screening varieties against pest and diseases;
Particularly for yellow mosaic virus and its vector Bemisia tabaci, pod
borer and pod fly
ii) Development of integrated insect pest and disease management
iii) Intensification of research on storage pests
d. Seed Technology
i) Fixing norms for quality seeds
ii) Identification of places for quality seed production
iii) Seed hardening
iv) Quality seed production techniques
v) storage studies
vi) Seed viability in soyabean
II. Exploring the possibilities of extending rice fallow pulses in other districts
III. Strengthening the seed production by identifying suitable places
IV. Well defined marketing facilities
V. Good storage facilities for keeping the pulse seeds without loosing their viability and protection against insect attack.
Rice fallow pulses production techniques
In Tamil Nadu rice is being cultivated in an area of 21 lakh hectares either as single or double crop. After the harvest of the rice crop during the month of January, much of the area is left as fallow. However in the districts of Tanjore, Nagapattinam, Thiruvarur, Trichy, Pudukkottai, Cuddalore, Villupuram, Thirunelveli and Thoothukudi. Pulses viz., blackgram, greengram, soybean are being cultivated under rice fallow situations. Rice fallow pulses are grown utilizing the residual moisture and also the moisture obtained from dew late in the season. The productivity of rice fallow pulses is low due to various reasons already indicated above. The productivity could be enhanced by following improved production techniques including the use of high yielding varieties.
Varietal improvement
Varietal improvement programmes are to be continued to breed high yielding and short duration varieties, taking into consideration the residual moisture and quantum of moisture obtained from dew. The local varieties which were in cultivation are of long duration in nature with excess vegetative growth and ultimately yielding less. Varietal improvement works in rice fallow pulses
at TRRI, Aduthurai and TNAU, Coimbatore resulted in the release of high yielding varieties suitable for rice fallow situation.
Blackgram
ADT 1 : Released in 1965 pureline selection form Aduthurai local, Duration 70-75 days, attains 50% flowerings 30-35 DAS yield 650 kg/ha.
ADT 2 : Released in 1979, Duration 70-75 days; yield 600 kg/ha; 50% flowering 30-35 DAS.
ADT 3 : Released in 1981; Duration 72-75 days, yield 750 kg/ha, Medium height and branches in the lower part of the plant. Also suitable for bund cropping.
ADT 4 : Released in 1987; Duration 65-70 days, yield 100 kg/ha also suitable for bund cropping. Resistant to root rot, yellow mosaic virus and stemfly capable of yielding even under late sown condition.
Greengram
ADT 1 : Released in 1996; Duration 80 days, yield 500 kg/ha.
ADT 2 : Released in 1982; Duration 70-75 days, growing upto 35 cm height, attain 50% flowering 50 DAS, yield 700 kg/ha. Resistant to powdery mildew disease.
ADT 3 : Released in 1988; Duration 65 days, yield 1000-1200 kg/ha.. Resistant to stemfly and yellow mosaic disease.
Soybean
ADT 1 : Released in 1990, 85-90 days duration, protein 30%, oil content 29% yield 1270 kg/ha, field resistant to major pest and disease.
CO 1 : Released in 1985, rainfed as well as irrigated condition, duration 85 days, yield 1800 kg/ha (rainfed), 1640 kg/ha (irrigated). Suitable for rice fallow situation also, high temperature during flowering grain filling is affected.
CO 2 : Duration 75 days, Released in 1996; yield 1340 kg/ha, non dehesive pods at maturity, oil content 24.8 also suitable for rice fallow situation.
To realise higher yield from rice fallow pulses the correct time of sowing is very important. Sowing the rice fallow pulses form January 15th to February 15th (Thaipattam) will give higher yield. The result of the time of sowing experiment in blackgram is furnished in Table 3. Sowing the pulses at appropriate time under rice fallow situation will enable the crop to utilize the residual fertility and moisture properly. Delayed sowing will expose the crop to drought at later period due to depletion of residual soil moisture. The main
reasons attributed to low yields in late sowings are high temperature prevailing in the growth and flowering phases.
Table 3. Seed yield of blackgram (kg/ha) at different dates of sowing 1998
Date of sowing
Yield
January II fortnight
739
February I fortnight
702
February II fortnight
409
March I fortnight
362
March II fortnight
262
CD
32
Seed rate
Optimum plant population is the basis for higher yield (optimum seed rate of 25 kg/ha is adopted). The gaps are to be filled with pre sprouted seeds to maintain optimum population.
Seed treatment
To prevent the spread of seed borne diseases, pre seed treatment with fungicide / biocontrol agent is to be resorted to Bevistin 2 g/kg of seed or Trichoderma viride 4 gm/kg of seed.
A study was conducted at Aduthurai for three years to compare the effect of soaking seeds in chemical solution. The seeds were soaked in water for 2 hours and than in chemical solution for 2 hours. The seeds were dried in shade before sowing. The results indicated that soaking seeds in 8% MnSO4 solution gave consistantly higher yields in all three years (Table 4).
Table 4. Effect of pre soaking of pulse seeds in chemical solutions
Treatment
Grain yield (kg/ha)
Blackgram
Greengram
1979
1980
1981
1979
1980
1981
MnSo4 8%
268
413
286
213
247
285
KCL 1 2%
128
201
139
199
207
165
FeSO4 4%
222
253
228
89
93
110
ZnSO4 8%
182
265
186
178
103
215
CuSO4 0.4%
161
250
213
63
103
130
K2SO4 2%
228
273
128
93
117
203
Water soaking
196
217
178
161
190
149
Unsoaked control
151
173
172
125
159
181
CD (P=0.05)
50
82
66
53
14
81
Pelleting of seeds with Super Phosphate, Rhizobial culture and plant protection chemicals has been reported to improve establishment, nodulation and grain yield in trials conducted under the All India Coordinated Pulses Improvement Project in different centres in the country. Efficacy and economics of this practice under rice fallow conditions are to be tested.
Bacterial seed treatment
Bacterial slurry may be prepared with rice kanji and treated the seeds. Bacterial culture treated seed to be dried in shade for 15 mts. before sowing (24 hour interval should be maintained between fungicide and bacterial treatments). Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride and carbendazim/thiram/PCNB at 4 and 2 g/kg respectively. Treating seeds with 3 pockets of crop specific Rhizobium culture has to be done.
Sowing
Proper levelling of Samba/Thaladi rice fields is necessary to avoid excess/deficit moisture during pulse sowing situation. Making availability of good quality seeds with more than 90% germination is to be ensured. Advising the farmers to at samba/Thaladi rice crops leaving 4 to 6 inches in order to facilitate growing young pulse seedlings to get more sunlight is also important. The pulse seeds are sown when the field is in waxy condition, 7-10 days prior to harvest of the crop. If sowing is not able to be taken up prior to harvest, the pulse seeds are to be dibbled manually at 30x10 cm spacing. The optimum population required per unit area is 33 plants. Germination and establishment should be completed before the top soil dried and an encrustation formed.
Nutrient Requirements
Of the 16 essential elements required for the nutrition of plants, pulses specially need adequate amount of P, Ca, Mg, S and Mo. Phosphorus is required for proper root growth and growth of rhizobia. Calcium and magnesium are required to stimulate growth and to increase the size of the nodules, pod formation and grain setting. Sulphur is required for nodulation and protein synthesis, Molybdenum for nitrogen fixation and assimilatation and boron for reproduction.
Greengram needs 45 kg of N; 4.5 kg of P; 7.3kg of K; 8.4 kg of Ca; 2.2 kg of Mg; 3.8 kg of S; 147g of Fe; 68g of Mn; 23 g of Zn and 10g of Cu to produce 1 t seed/ha.
Similarly blackgram requires 45 kg of N; 5.3 kg of P; 7.5 kg of K; 90.2 kg of Ca; 3.0 kg of Mg; 4.5 kg of S; 150 g of Fe; 68 g of Mn; 36 g of Zn and 11 g of Cu to produce 1 t seed/ha.
Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms
When pulse plants are not supplied with adequate amount of these nutrients they develop deficiency symptoms.
NITROGEN : Stunted growth, small sized seeds, pale green coloured
leaves, premature yellow colouring of leaves, shortened crop duration.
PHOSPHORUS : Reduced growth dark green or bluish green leaves
POTASSIUM : Pale green coloured chlorotic leaves, chloreotic symptoms appearing on the margin and in between veins, necrotic
spotted veins, plants susceptible for diseases.
MAGNESIUM : Interveinal chlorosis on older leaves, pale necrotic spots,
leaves prematurely shed
SULPHUR : Similar to N deficiency symptoms, reduction in yield
MANGANESE : Intervenial chlorosis of the terminal young leaves
AND IRON
ZINC : Reduction in size of young leaves, thick brittle leaves
forming upward cups, brownish orange chlorosis of the older leaves.
Foliar spray of nutrients
There is no possibility of basal application of fertilizers for pulses, since the pulses are sown prior to harvest of rice crop. Therefore, fertilizer incorporation becomes impossible. Hence foliar fertilization is resorted to spraying of 2% DAP and 1% KCl is recommended at 30 and 45 DAS. To mitigate the drought effect on the crop for pulses cycocel at 100 ppm (100 mg/lit) is recommended. Cycocel spray will enhance the root development, which facilitates the crop to get moisture from deeper layer. During drought situation, flower dropping is seen. The check the flower dropping, NAA (4ml in 4.5 lit) spray is advocated, first spray at floral initiation and another spray at 15 days thereafter.
Plant Protection
• Need based application of fungicides and pesticides
• Effective rat control measures are to be taken for checking the damage of pulse crop and yield reduction
The rats start damaging the pulse crops after 30-35 days of sowing i.e. on the day of flowering. Rat movements have to be carefully watched and baits kept in 30-35 rat holes. The bait should be prepared with twenty grams of popped paddy/popped cumbu. Then popped grains are soaked with 2% coconut oil and then mixed with zinc phosphide in the ratio of 49:1 and collected in a coconut shell. About 70-80% of the rats which eat the bait will be killed within 12 hours. All dead rats are removed in the next day morning at 5-6 AM and buried, otherwise eagles, crows other birds, cats, dogs etc. will eat the dead rats and die. Baiting should be repeated on 10th day of flowering.
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting should be done at appropriate time and the seeds are striped of from the pods by beating with sticks. Seeds are then dried cleaned and stored in gunny bag after treating them with activated clay/mixing with Notchi/neem leaf/treating with oil. Periodical drying is essential to check Bruchid damage.
Extension method
i) Creating awareness among the farmers about the need for pulses production
ii) Frequent viable programmes broadcasting/telecasting through AIR/TV
iii) Distribution of pamphlets/leaflets on pulses production
iv) Conducting large scale demonstrations for the technology like, seed treatment, population maintenance DAP spraying and rat control

v) Conducting field day with farmers who have good pulse crop and encouraging them with awards.
vi) Arrangements for field visits with farmers to Research stations like, National Pulses Research Centre, Vamban, Coimbatore and Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institue, Aduthurai to discuss with the Scientists and even to other pulse growing stages.
vii) Organising seminars/workshops farmers gatherings for discussion and to disseminate new varieties/technologies
viii) Conducting pulses production lessons through Farm school on AIR/correspondence course.

1 comment:

  1. Hello
    I visited in yours.I am interesting in production and protection of green gram and especially seed production for resistant variety of greengram
    If you have some knowledge for these and if you can share to me , you are requested .I am an employee from Myanmar ( Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation ).My e mail account is nmyonyunt.nyunt@gmail.com.Thanks

    ReplyDelete